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Ice Cream

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Ice cream is a frozen dessert, typically made from milk or cream and flavoured with a sweetener, either sugar or an alternative, and a spice, such as cocoa or vanilla, or with fruit such as strawberries or peaches. It can also be made by whisking a flavored cream base and liquid nitrogen together. Food coloring is sometimes added, in addition to stabilizers. The mixture is cooled below the freezing point of water and stirred to incorporate air spaces and to prevent detectable ice crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam that is solid at very low temperatures (below 2 C or 35 F). It becomes more malleable as its temperature increases.

The meaning of the name "ice cream" varies from one country to another. In some countries, such as the United States, "ice cream" applies only to a specific variety, and most governments regulate the commercial use of the various terms according to the relative quantities of the main ingredients, notably the amount of cream.[1] Products that do not meet the criteria to be called ice cream are sometimes labelled "frozen dairy dessert" instead.[2] In other countries, such as Italy and Argentina, one word is used for all variants. Analogues made from dairy alternatives, such as goat's or sheep's milk, or milk substitutes (e.g., soy, cashew, coconut, almond milk or tofu), are available for those who are lactose intolerant, allergic to dairy protein or vegan.

The origins of frozen desserts are obscure, although several accounts exist about their history.Some sources describe ice cream-like foods as originating in Persia as far back as 550 BC.[3][4] Using Ice houses and ice pools, Persians were able to serve and produce faloodeh and sorbets all year round.[5]

Ice cream production became easier with the discovery of the endothermic effect.[11] Prior to this, cream could be chilled easily but not frozen. It was the addition of salt, that lowered the melting point of ice, which had the effect of drawing heat from the cream and allowing it to freeze.

In the sixteenth century, the Mughal Empire used relays of horsemen to bring ice from the Hindu Kush to its capital Delhi. The ice was used in fruit sorbets.[12] It was also used to create kulfi, a popular frozen dairy dessert from the Indian subcontinent often described as "traditional Indian ice cream."[13]

The technique of "freezing" is not known from any European sources prior to the 16th century.[11] During the sixteenth century authors made reference to the refrigerant effect that happened when salt was added to ice causing it to freeze. But it wasn't until the latter part of the seventeenth century that sorbets and ice creams were made using this process.[14]

Ice cream's spread throughout Europe is sometimes attributed to Moorish traders, but more often to Marco Polo. Though it's not mentioned in any of his writings, Polo is often credited with introducing sorbet-style desserts to Italy after learning of it during his travels to China.[15] The Italian duchess Catherine de' Medici is said to have introduced flavored sorbet ices to France when she brought some Italian chefs with her to France upon marrying the Duke of Orléans (Henry II of France) in 1533.[16][17] One hundred years later, Charles I of England was reportedly so impressed by the "frozen snow" that he offered his own ice cream maker a lifetime pension in return for keeping the formula secret, so that ice cream could be a royal prerogative.[18] There is no evidence to support many of these legends.[15][6]

The first recorded mention of ice cream in England was in 1671. Elias Ashmole described the dishes served at the Feast of St George at Windsor in for Charles II in 1671 and included 'one plate of ice cream'.[21] The only table at the banquet with ice cream on it was that of the King.[22] The first recipe for ice cream in English was published in Mrs. Mary Eales's Receipts, a book dedicated to confectionary, in London in 1718.[23][24][25][21]

The 1751 edition of The


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